Annotated Bibliography

Barthes, Roland. Mythologies, translated by Richard Howard/Annette Lavers of Part II, Myth Today (1972); Hill and Wang, A division of Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, The Complete Edition, in a New Translation Paperback – March 12, 2013.

Mythologies by Roland Barthes is a captivating exploration of contemporary culture originally written in French and published in 1957. The book is a collection of essays that examine the hidden meanings and symbols embedded in everyday cultural artifacts, ranging from phrases with meaning, images, objects, advertisements, and films to popular magazines and wrestling matches.  The collection was originally written as a bi-monthly series of essays from the French magazine, “Les Lettres Nouvelles.”

Barthes was a French literary theorist, essayist, philosopher, critic, and semiotician influenced by Michael Foucault and Jacques Derrida. His work analyzed various sign systems, mainly derived from Western popular culture. In Mythologies, Barthes employs a critical and analytical lens to dissect the underpinnings of contemporary French society, revealing how these seemingly innocuous elements contribute to creating myths that shape collective consciousness. In the book, Barthes explains myths and associates them with manipulations, describing them as fabrications of consumer society. He points out where they appear in society to open our eyes to manipulations and teach us how to avoid them. Barthes argues that the myths must be carefully deciphered and debunked.

Annette Lavers and Richard Howard completed the English translation of the book in 1972 to provide an insightful and groundbreaking approach available to a wider audience.  His work continues to inspire critical thinking and innovative perspectives in academia and beyond.

Clark, Robert C. “Keeping the Reader in the House: American Minimalism, Literary Impressionism, and Raymond Carver’s ‘Cathedral.’” Journal of Modern Literature, vol. 36, no. 1, 2012, pp. 104–18. JSTOR, Accessed 4 Dec. 2023

This essay explores how the writing of Raymond Carver, one of the most famous authors of American Minimalism, has been influenced by Literary Impressionism. It explores his most celebrated short story, “Cathedral,” and its connection involving both American Minimalism and Literary Impressionism. Minimalism is thought to have originated after 1950, though there is evidence it goes as far back as the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Although Carver admires the works of Hemingway and Chekov, it is argued that he is only a minimalist writer for a small period of time. Carver’s editor, Gordon Lish, is thought to have been the reason for Carver being placed in the minimalist category due to his affinity for removing anything unnecessary in Carver’s work, stripping it down to the bare minimum. This influence over Carver’s work eventually disappears, and what is seen thereafter showcases his actual writing style.  Although it bares saying that while Carver’s stories become more substantial, they still carry the basic principles of American Minimalism. For example, Carver has a way of communicating the many banal events with reportorial detachment without giving any reason for why it’s being reported. This demands the reader has an enhanced level of awareness and ability to interpret the meaning of the text.

Crooks, Robert, et al. Our Sexuality Revised ed., Cengage Learning, 2021.

Our Sexuality is a textbook that is centered around the topic of human sexuality. The textbook is used nationwide across various universities and academic institutions. The primary focus of the content is on relationships, attractions, and sexual and gender identity. The content of the textbook is consistently updated and revised in order to give the readers access to up-to-date information and psychological research. In addition, the textbook is the first textbook to discuss the impact of politics on sexuality and introduce that discussion to the classroom. With an objective point of view and no bias, the textbook explores the psychology behind human sexuality and touches on certain topics which can be perceived as sensitive in modern society such as STIs. It examines human sexuality through the lens of other cultures and crosses the boundaries between them, offering significant insight that transcends bias. With the aim to increase the readers’ self-awareness when it comes to their sexuality and the sexuality of others, Our Sexuality offers an excellent analysis of certain sensitive topics that can give help and guidance to those in need. Furthermore, the text touches on all aspects which are affected by sexuality and aims to educate how sexuality is intertwined in these areas of our lives.

Derrida, Jacques. Writing & Différence, translated by Alan Bass. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.

Jacques Derrida, a French philosopher, is best known for his groundbreaking work in the field of Deconstruction. In his book of essays, Writing & Difference, originally published in 1967 and translated by Alan Bass, Derrida presents a collection of writings that serve as a foundational text for understanding the critical lens of Deconstruction. As Derrida conceived, Deconstruction challenges conventional ways of thinking and understanding language, literature, and philosophy. Derrida argues that language is inherently unstable and that words do not possess fixed meanings. Instead, they are characterized by a web of interconnected meanings that depend on context, culture, and historical context. Deconstruction seeks to expose the contradictions, hierarchies, and binary oppositions that underlie texts and ideas.

In Writing & Difference, Derrida explores a wide range of topics, including the nature of language, the relationship between speech and writing, and the implications of Deconstruction for various fields such as literature, philosophy, and structuralism. Through careful analysis and critique of philosophical texts, Derrida demonstrates how Deconstruction can reveal hidden assumptions and contradictions within these texts. Derrida’s work in Writing & Difference has profoundly influenced literary theory, philosophy, and cultural studies. It has opened up new avenues of inquiry by challenging traditional modes of interpretation and inviting readers to engage with texts in a more nuanced and critical manner. Derrida’s ideas continue to shape contemporary discussions about language, meaning, and interpretation, making “Writing and Difference” a seminal work in Deconstruction.

Doerr, Anthony. “River Run.” The Sewanee Review, The Johns Hopkins University Press, vol. 109, no. 3, 2001, pp. 321-330.

“River Run” was written by award-winning author Anthony Doerr. This story was written throughout the time he was in graduate school. One of the key inspirations behind the story was Doerr’s desire to challenge himself when it came to his writing skills and to see if he could provide a detailed backstory in a format rooted in the present.

The story focuses on a retired man named Mulligan. Through vivid imagery, symbolism, and naturalistic descriptions, Doerr depicts Mulligan’s complex emotional state as he confronts suppressed attitudes toward his wife. Caught in between his loyalty towards his wife and the sentimentality he holds for his mistress, Mulligan’s world comes to a crashing halt when he realizes his marriage is now coming to an end. Doerr’s prose continues to enchant and captivate audiences as he gives them insight into the worlds of his many beloved characters.

Doerr, Anthony. “The Hunter’s Wife,” The Atlantic Monthly, May 2001.

“The Hunter’s Wife” is a fictional short story by Pulitzer Prize-winning author of “All the Light We Cannot See,” Anthony Doerr. The narrative revolves around an outdoorsman from Montana who falls in love with a magician’s assistant who possesses magical abilities to see into dreams and souls of dying animals. Initially published in The Atlantic Monthly’s May 2001 issue, this compelling tale later found its place within a collection of short stories featured in Doerr’s novel, “The Shell Collector.” Published in January 2011, Penguin Books.

Doerr’s “The Hunter’s Wife” can be regarded as a masterclass in descriptive writing. The author skillfully immerses the reader in a world of vivid imagery, utilizing rich language and concrete detail, and employs techniques like personifying landscapes, analogies, and metaphors to evoke a profound sense of place. The author introduces the central character, plot, and setting from the opening sentence. The author’s prose cleverly blends the naturalist’s view with the poet’s gift of metaphor, as nature is central in driving the plot and shaping the dynamic between “The Hunter” and his wife. Doerr breathes life into the setting, portraying it as a living entity that influences the characters’ experiences. The meticulously crafted descriptions of the surroundings paint vivid pictures and propel the plot and action forward, contributing to the story’s depth and resonance.

Anthony Doerr Official Website. href=””>

Anthony Doerr’s Official Website is the authoritative hub for all things literary related to the acclaimed author Anthony Doerr. This comprehensive platform offers readers a wealth of engaging content and up-to-date information. Individuals from diverse entertainment genres, including literature, film, and television, who are keen on discovering more about the author and the experiences that shaped the creation and evolution of his works can explore the following key features:

Interactive Novels Page: The website boasts an interactive page dedicated to six of Anthony Doerr’s celebrated novels. This includes The Shell Collector (2002), About Grace (2004), Memory Wall (2010), Four Seasons in Rome (2007), the Pulitzer Prize-winning masterpiece All the Light We Cannot See (2014), and his latest novel, Cloud Cuckoo Land, (2021) recognized as a Finalist for the National Book Award.

The Author’s Biography is easily accessed and allows visitors to dig into the author’s life through a detailed biography and a color photograph. The Events Calendar: Stay updated on Anthony Doerr’s schedule of appearances and events, including a national tour to promote his latest book, Cloud Cuckoo Land, and includes the latest announcement of the recent release of the Netflix limited series adaptation of All the Light We Cannot See on November 2, 2023, Visitors can also access the official Netflix YouTube trailer for the series directly from the website.

The News Section offers timely information and updates directly from the author, informing readers about the latest developments in Anthony Doerr’s literary world. Additionally, the publication provides a convenient way for readers to contact the author through his publicist and staff, making it easy to get in touch using the contact details provided.

Additionally, the website offers an interactive Q&A section that allows readers to gain deeper insights into the creative process behind Anthony Doerr’s stories. It also proudly displays the numerous awards and accolades that recognize the author’s rich body of work. Anthony Doerr’s Official Website is a comprehensive resource for fans and readers, offering a multifaceted experience that celebrates the author’s literary achievements and provides valuable insights into his creative world. “Doerr’s prose dazzles, his sinewy sentences blending the naturalist’s unswerving gaze with the poet’s gift for metaphor.” The New York Times.

Idaho Fish and Game. “Idaho Species Publication,” Idaho Official Government Website

Idaho Fish and Game, “Idaho Species Publication” is a helpful report for lepidopterists, ornithologists, hunters, fishermen, and bird-watching enthusiasts, among others, interested in the seasonal migration and native species throughout Idaho’s vast and varied environments. The publication is available online and includes fifty full pages of color photographs, descriptions, and in-depth reports regarding the presence of native and migrated invertebrate species that are native and migratory to Idaho. The reports include Idaho’s classification of Wildlife, Endangered species, County lists, Conservation status taxonomy, Species of greatest conservation need, and shared observations. Research that provides statistics about the variety of species in Idaho’s population and season, presence and regularity, and the Department’s confidence in the information provided. The Department also includes a map showing the designated species’ specific locations. The Department’s information collection is stored in a species database considered the most comprehensive archive of information regarding Idaho’s fish, wildlife, and plant diversity. The information for the program is developed through observations that are contributed by partners in federal, state, tribal, and other non-public and private organizations, consultants, and the general public. This database is managed and maintained by the Idaho Fish and Wildlife Information Systems at Idaho Fish and Game.

Lamarche, Veronica M., and Jonathan J. Rolison. “Hand-in-Hand in the Golden Years: Cognitive Interdependence, Partner Involvement in Retirement Planning, and the Transition into Retirement.” Plos One 16.12 (2021): e0261251.

In many advanced countries, a larger than normal population is moving into retirement, prompting an exploration into how to smooth over problems often encountered with this major life transition. This article delves into how this shift can be life-changing in positive and sometimes less-than-positive ways. It explores the challenges and stressors faced by these individuals and what elements can contribute to their positive welfare. While most people prepare for their financial security post-retirement, many neglect to consider how their societal and relationship roles will change. Having a romantic partner who is supportive during this time can make this transition easier or more difficult if support is lacking.

The article covers three studies that examine the influence of how much people view themselves as partners in their relationships rather than as individuals and how this shapes the pre-retirement and post-retirement years. This is known as cognitive interdependence. The studies investigate whether partners with greater cognitive interdependence can influence each other pre- and post-retirement, how this affects their well-being, how much easier their transition into retirement may be compared to individuals with less cognitive interdependence, and whether those who involve their partners in the retirement decision making have higher or lower cognitive interdependence.

Lewandowski, Gary W. “The 8 Reasons Why People Cheat | Psychology Today.” The 8 Reasons Why People Cheat, Psychology Today, 22 Mar. 2021,

When the foundation of a romantic relationship has been shaken by infidelity, the first thing people tend to do is look to see what is missing within the relationship to cause the cheating partner to look elsewhere, with a lack of sex or sexual incompatibility often being given as the reason. This article seeks to dispel that assumption by delving into eight of the most common motivators driving people to cheat on their partners and the reasons why. A study was done on 495 individuals who admitted to cheating on their partners. They were given a list of 77 options, asking them why they cheated. The two main driving factors in the affairs pertained to the situation, meaning alcohol or certain stressors most often led to the unfaithful partner choosing to be unfaithful, or there was a break within the primary relationship, meaning there was neglect, a lack of love, lack of commitment or anger. Around half of the affairs involved sex of some kind, with only a small percentage having no physical contact. Also, the motivators behind the infidelity often affected the length of the affairs. The affair relationship rarely resulted in an actual relationship, with only 1 out of 10 continuing past the initial affair, although, surprisingly, only 1 out of 5 of the primary relationships ended due to the affair.

Long, Liza. “Critical Worlds: A Targeted Introduction to Literary Analysis.” Critical Worlds, Accessed December 8, 2023.

Critical Worlds: A Targeted Approach to Literary Analysis was created for English 211: Literary Analysis, a course at the College of Western Idaho. Written by author, educator, and assistant professor at the college above, Dr. Liza Long, this textbook delves into a large variety of critical theories used by scholars in the analysis of literature. Each section explores a different theory, focusing on what target within that particular theory is utilized in its examination of a piece of literature. For examples of what is found within the textbook, here are a few of the critical theories explored by the writers analyzing “River Run:”  A New Criticism critical analysis will be targeting the text, insisting that a work of literature should be viewed as a self-contained and self-referential entity; A Psychological Criticism will look at the mind and apply psychological theories to texts, using literature to explore and understand the human psyche; Reader Response focuses on the reader, asking how the implied reader would respond to the text; and Deconstruction which focuses on the gap between one mind and another, insists that meaning is not stable or universal. Deconstruction opens the text to new meanings, examining how the text privileges some meanings over others. Other critical theories include Biographical/ Historical Criticism, New Historicism, Marxist, Postcolonial, Critical Race Theory, Cultural Studies Criticism, Feminist, Post Feminist, Queer Theory, and Ecocriticism. Each chapter briefly touches on the chosen theory, beginning with an introduction, then moves to explore both critical and literary primary texts, has an accompanying video, and ends with an example of how to apply the theory to a primary text.

Mcleod, Saul. “Sigmund Freud Dream Theory.” SimplyPsychology. July 15. 2023.

“Sigmund Freud’s Dream Theory” is an article written by a member of the organization SimplyPsychology, which aims to educate audiences about certain psychological concepts and how to integrate these concepts into their lives. The article is written by Saul Mcleod, an educator and researcher of psychology who received their PhD in psychology from the University of Manchester. Mcleod has over eighteen years of experience in the realm of research and education in the field of psychology. In addition, the article was peer-reviewed by Olivia Guy-Evans and Ioanna Stavraki. Both of whom received education in psychology. The article is split into four sections: Sigmund Freud’s interpretation of dreams, the relationship between latent content and dreams, how the mind removes latent content, and how to analyze dreams through psychoanalysis. Throughout the article, Mcleod offers key concepts and definitions that are defined in ways that make sense to the larger audience. These concepts aim to educate the reader about terms that pertain to the field of psychoanalysis and how they can incorporate these concepts into their own lives. The article offers insight into the birth of Freud’s dream theory and mentions real-life examples of Freud using this form of work on his clients.

Parmentier, Richard J. “Representation, symbol, and semiosis: Signs of a scholarly collaboration.” Signs and Society, vol. 3, no. 1, 2015, pp. 1–7,

Richard Parmentier, in his article titled “Representation, Symbol, and Semiosis Signs of a Scholarly Collaboration,” explains the definitions of symbols and representation throughout history. He breaks down the meaning of symbolism, first the word and then the usage, and explains in detail how a symbol is when one thing is removed and rejoined by something else. He also explains the meaning behind the word “represents” and the many unique ways the word can be used or applied in writing or real-life situations. Knowing Doerr uses a lot of themes and connections of one thing with another, also known as symbolism, Parmentier explains how this is done. The article does not mention anything about the short story “River Run,” but used through a New Critical lens, it can help break down Doerr’s symbolism in a rather effective way by pinpointing what is symbolism and what is just extra description in the scenes. Doerr’s short stories are known to be full of symbols and subtle representations, and knowing exactly what to look for when you are breaking down the meaning or definition of symbolism is highly useful while using the New Critical lens.

Rosdahl, Lyle D. “The Shell Collector (Book).” Library Journal, vol. 127, no. 1, Jan. 2002, p. 156. EBSCOhost,

Rosdahl reviews Anthony Doerr’s “The Shell Collector” and explains the intricacy and depth of the stories collected in the book, describing Doerr’s talents and tendencies as an author and pointing out the almost life-like qualities of the characters he writes about in his stories. While this review does not specifically describe or reference Anthony Doerr’s insightful short story “River Run” it does point out the themes of Anthony’s writing such as the intricate plots, poetic language and his many well thought out themes throughout all his stories. Doerr’s writing style is almost whimsical and has an “in-real-life” feeling as one reads his work and can relate to the characters and plots. Rosdahl, using limited language and precise criticism, breaks down Doerr’s collection of short stories, praising him for his talents and story-telling capabilities, such as the language and depth of the characters, plot, and the language and devices interwoven throughout them all. Rosdahl focuses mainly on Doerr’s writing style rather than the stories themselves. He points out the characters and how they seem to come to life while reading the stories, showing how Doerr inflicts real emotions and actions of people into his stories, making them more realistic and relatable to his audience.

Shelburne, Walter. “Existential Perspective in the Thought of Carl Jung.” Journal of Religion and Health, vol. 22, no. 1, Spring. 1983, pp. 58-73,

Written by Walter Shelburne, “Existential Perspective in the Thought of Carl Jung” is a journal article that offers an in-depth analysis of Carl Jung and how one’s philosophy might develop through the lens of self-reflection and psychology. The source draws from various sources regarding religious attitudes. Shelburne discusses Jung’s ideologies and how they pertain to determining human nature. To contrast the ideologies and offer a potential rebuttal that offers a different perspective, Shelburne introduces the opposing beliefs of Paul Sartre.  The concept of human nature is discussed in a way that connects human freedom and the concept of liberation. Different philosophies are introduced and expanded in ways rooted in Jung’s psychology. These contrasting ideologies ultimately lead to the conclusion that one must overcome self-deception to achieve true human liberation. As a note on the author, Walter Shelburne is a professor of philosophy at Diablo Valley College. The Applied Philosophy Institute is in San Jose, California, and was founded by Walter Shelburne. This journal article was published in the Journal of Religion and Health, which aims to discuss important concepts that combine psychology, mental health, philosophy, and spirituality/ religion.

Spielman, Rose. Psychology 2e. Openstax, 22 April 2020.

This textbook examines the human mind and psychological concepts, divided into categories. Further, it observes how certain psychological states can affect our livelihood and relationships. It elaborates on these concepts by introducing different therapeutic methods and recovery methods. It gives an in-depth history of psychology and discusses significant concepts by renowned psychologists such as Erik Erikson, Carl Jung, and Jean Piaget. The textbook’s content offers emerging research in the field of psychology as well as classical concepts that aim to educate those taking a psychology course. The text also examines different cultures and how they relate to one another in terms of psychological concepts.

Psychology2e was written by Rose Spielman, William Jenkins, and Marilyn Lovett. Each of whom has extensive knowledge of psychology and is are educators at an accredited universities.

This version of the textbook is online and is considered the second edition. It is updated on a consistent basis while paying heed to any suggestions readers might have to give students access to the latest information and discoveries in the field of psychology. The textbook also incorporates the latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) into its discussions and teachings.

Willard, Nancy. “Rivers Run Through It.” New York Times, Section 7, Page 7, March 2002,

Nancy Willard authored “Rivers Run Through It,” published in the New York Times on March 3, 2002. Her article analyzes Anthony Doerr’s first short story collection, The Shell Collector, published by Penguin Books in 2002. She is a poet, novelist, writer, and teacher. Willard wrote children’s fiction, poetry, novels, short stories, and literary criticism for adults. She attended the University of Michigan and Stanford University for her undergraduate and graduate degrees. From 1965 to 2013, she taught in Vassar College’s English Department. Throughout her career, she published 70 books of poetry and fiction. Among her many awards, A Visit to William Blake’s Inn: Poems for Innocent and Experienced Travelers (1982) was the first book of poetry to receive both a Caldecott Honor and a Newbery Medal.

In her analysis, she describes Doerr’s writing as eavesdropping on people’s storytelling about living in the wilderness. Throughout her critique, Willard identifies central themes of nature, hunting, and letting go. Her exploration of these themes offers readers a deeper understanding of the underlying motifs that tie together the diverse stories within the book. Willard also describes the collection as filled with characters in the wild and civilized worlds. Her article is a quick overview of Doerr’s first published collection of short stories and includes an expert’s point of view about his writing style and structure and gives the reader a sneak peek into the imaginative short stories that fill the pages of The Shell Collector.

Young, Rebecca; Monsivais, Adrianna; Couch, Erica; King, Ava. “‘River Run’ by Anthony Doerr: Q and A with ‘River Run’ Author Anthony Doerr.” Beginnings and Endings: A Critical Edition, Pressbooks, 2023.

This interview was conducted with Anthony Doerr on the 8th of December, 2023. The interview was arranged by the project manager, Rebecca Young, of the Critical Edition and analysis of Doerr’s short story entitled “River Run” (whose title has since changed to “A Tangle by the Rapid River.”)

The interview consists of questions that are phrased to better understand Doerr’s short story through different literary lenses, which consist of new criticism, reader response, deconstruction, and psychological. The information given during the interview has been used in the various essays of this critical edition to provide further insights for the reader/ audience.

The overall interview elapsed for a total of thirty-five minutes and covered a wide range of topics as well. Doerr elaborates on his process as a writer and shares invaluable insights into the world of writing. He discusses different techniques and how some of his work came together. Toward the end of the interview, he shares his thoughts regarding generative A.I. and its use in modern literature. The conversation occurs between the project manager, the editor, the publisher, the professor of the class, and Doerr himself.

Zerweck, Bruno. “Historicizing Unreliable Narration: Unreliability and Cultural Discourse in Narrative Fiction.” Style, vol. 35, no. 1, 2001, pp. 151–76. JSTOR, Accessed 13 Dec. 2023.

Bruno Zerweck, a scholar associated with Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, has significantly contributed to the discourse on unreliable narration in literary studies. His work explores the concept of unreliable narrators in narrative literary fiction, and in his essay, “Historizing Unreliable Narration: Unreliability and Cultural Discourse in Narrative Fiction,” published in the Spring of 2001, he examines the concept of unreliable narration and the importance of the concept since its introduction in 1961 by Wayne C. Booth. Booth’s definition is considered to be the foundational expertise on the topic and has been found in almost every narrative textbook. In the essay, Zerweck begins his study with the straightforward description of Booth’s classic definition of an unreliable narrator: a narrator is reliable when they adhere to the norms of the work and unreliable when they deviate from those norms. However, Zerweck’s research challenges traditional definitions and approaches and emphasizes the study from a reader-centered perspective rather than relying solely on the implied author. He considers unreliability an interpretive strategy shaped by readers’ cognitive processes. Zerweck advocates for historical and cultural awareness, recognizing that unreliability varies across time and cultural contexts. He examines key points in his paper that include the concept of the unreliable narrator, the reader-centered approach, and the historical and cultural context at the intersection of ethics, aesthetics, and various cultural discourses. The essay invites the reader to consider unreliable narration beyond traditional definitions.


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Beginnings and Endings: A Critical Edition Copyright © 2021 by Liza Long is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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